[Appraisal of the variability and suitability of prescribing antimicrobials in primary health care in the Basque Country]

Rotaeche R, Vicente D, Etxeberria A, Mozo C, Larranaga M, Valverde E, Lopez L, Olasagasti C, Barandiaran M, Iturrioz P
Record ID 31999009161
Spanish
Original Title: Evaluación de la variabilidad e idoneidad en la prescripción de antimicrobianos en atención primaria en la Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco. Recomendaciones de uso apropiado
Authors' objectives: The aim of this survey was to study the variability and suitability of the prescription of ATBs in our Autonomous Community, together with an appraisal of bacterial resistances and an economic assessment of the cost of the treatment with antibiotics prescribed unnecessarily. In order to put this survey into perspective, a study has also been made of the development of infectious diseases and of the prescription of antibiotics over the last 10 years in the Basque Country.
Authors' results and conclusions: In order to achieve our aims, 6 different surveys were carried out during 1998. 1. Survey of the development of infectious diseases in the Basque Country over the period 1986-1996 The annual incidence rates were calculated in accordance with the Notifiable Diseases (ND) rates weekly, grouping infectious processes in two categories (digestive transmission pathology and air transmission pathology). The population data correspond to those published by EUSTAT-Basque Statistics Institute for the 1986 register and 1991 census. The population figures for the periods between these censuses were estimated by interpolation and extrapolation. 2. Appraisal of bacterial resistance In January 1998, data began to be gathered on the resistance of the microorganisms most frequently implicated in high respiratory tract pathology to antimicrobials (S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, H. influenzae), non complicated urinary infection (E. coli) and C.jejuni as the cause of infectious diarrhoea susceptible to antibiotic treatment. The archives of the Microbiology Service of the Aranzazu Hospital was used as a source for this data. The results obtained correspond to Gipuzkoa, which are expressed in percentages of resistant strains. For E. coli, urine infections outside hospitals in the San Sebastián area were selected, the susceptibility study being carried out by means of micro-dilution in culture medium. Both for Streptococcus pneumoniae and for Streptococcus pyogenes, a microdilution in culture medium system was also used, while for H. influenzae and Campylobacter jejuni the technique used was disk-diffusion. In all cases, the susceptibility criteria followed were described by NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) in 1997. 3. Assessment of the consumption of antibiotics in the Basque Country during the period 1988-97 and its bearing on infectious diseases and bacterial resistances. Descriptive survey on the consumption of ATBs between 1988 and 1997. The ECOM database of the Ministry and Health and Cosumer Affairs was used. Consumption data was expressed in defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants and day (DID), in line with the recommendations of the OMS. The reference values used are those published by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification Index, 1988). For the main actives not included in this list, the daily doses recommended by the Andalusian Health Service Working Group have been used in order to determine DDDs. When not found in this list, those recommended by the manufacturing laboratory were used. An analysis was made of the consumption in DID of the following sections: overall consumption of ATBs, consumption per therapeutic groups of ATBs, consumption of cephalosporins per generation and per administering method and consumption of macrolides. 4. Descriptive survey on antibiotic indication-prescription A survey was made in order to determine the prescriptions made, at a given moment in time, to treat infectious diseases, requested by doctors (family and paediatricians) belonging to the primary care health service. 5. Drawing up of recommendations on the appropriate use of ATB in Primary Health care Bibliographical review of the scientific literature in bibliographical databases: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Best Evidence and INAHTA. Identification and selection of quality surveys that comply with the inclusion criteria previously established in the survey, making a synthesis and presentation in the form of tables of the evidence offered by the relevant surveys. 6.Economic assessment of the consumption of antibiotics The total amount consumed in antibiotics during the period studied was calculated. To make a real estimation of the increase in expenditure, current pesetas were adjusted to constant pesetas, using the annual CPIs and taking 1997 as the base year. Once the indication-prescription survey had been made, it was decided to estimate what could have been saved, should antibiotics not have been rescribed for viral infections for which there were no instructions to use these.
Authors' recomendations: The incidence of infectious pathology shows a decrease over recent years which has not had an influence on the consumption of antibiotics, which was stable during the period under study. Nevertheless, the utilisation profile has changed radically. Traditional antibiotics have been replaced by new, wide-spectrum, more costly antibiotics (macrolides, excluding erythromycins, cephalosporins of 2nd and 3rd generation and quinolones). The levels of resistance of the main micro-organisms involved in the most prevalent infections in primary health care, are very high. This seems to confirm the relationship between resistance and the consumption of antibiotics.The use of antibiotics in mostly viral infectious aetiology processes (colds in the high respiratory tracts, influenza and acute bronchitis) is high. This represents 40% of all antibiotic prescriptions leading to an unnecessary expenditure of over 1,000 million pesetas in the Basque Country.In those processes in whih ATB treatment is indicated (tonsillitis, otitis, urinary infection, sinusitis, pneumonia, dental infection) when the choice of ATB is inadequate this is at the expense of wise spectrum antibiotics (new macrolides, cephalosporins and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid). Factors relating to health care professionals such as attitudes and training have more importance in non adequate prescription than the clinical characteristics of patients.It is necessary to delve further into the prescription/consumption process of ATBs, to explore new aspects not tackled in this survey, such as the attitudes of professionals, the doctor-patient interrelationship, self-medication and the role of pharmacies. This survey provides keys on which to take action in order to attain a more rational prescription. These include multi-disciplinary collaboration between everyone involved in prescribing ATBs and efficient CMT. It is necessary to take a new look at the current strategies in continuous training in antimicrobial therapy.
Authors' methods: In order to achieve our aims, 6 different surveys were carried out during 1998. 1. Survey of the development of infectious diseases in the Basque Country over the period 1986-1996 The annual incidence rates were calculated in accordance with the Notifiable Diseases (ND) rates weekly, grouping infectious processes in two categories (digestive transmission pathology and air transmission pathology). The population data correspond to those published by EUSTAT-Basque Statistics Institute for the 1986 register and 1991 census. The population figures for the periods between these censuses were estimated by interpolation and extrapolation. 2. Appraisal of bacterial resistance In January 1998, data began to be gathered on the resistance of the microorganisms most frequently implicated in high respiratory tract pathology to antimicrobials (S. pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, H. influenzae), non complicated urinary infection (E. coli) and C.jejuni as the cause of infectious diarrhoea susceptible to antibiotic treatment. The archives of the Microbiology Service of the Aranzazu Hospital was used as a source for this data. The results obtained correspond to Gipuzkoa, which are expressed in percentages of resistant strains. For E. coli, urine infections outside hospitals in the San Sebastián area were selected, the susceptibility study being carried out by means of micro-dilution in culture medium. Both for Streptococcus pneumoniae and for Streptococcus pyogenes, a microdilution in culture medium system was also used, while for H. influenzae and Campylobacter jejuni the technique used was disk-diffusion. In all cases, the susceptibility criteria followed were described by NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards) in 1997. 3. Assessment of the consumption of antibiotics in the Basque Country during the period 1988-97 and its bearing on infectious diseases and bacterial resistances. Descriptive survey on the consumption of ATBs between 1988 and 1997. The ECOM database of the Ministry and Health and Cosumer Affairs was used. Consumption data was expressed in defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants and day (DID), in line with the recommendations of the OMS. The reference values used are those published by the WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification Index, 1988). For the main actives not included in this list, the daily doses recommended by the Andalusian Health Service Working Group have been used in order to determine DDDs. When not found in this list, those recommended by the manufacturing laboratory were used. An analysis was made of the consumption in DID of the following sections: overall consumption of ATBs, consumption per therapeutic groups of ATBs, consumption of cephalosporins per generation and per administering method and consumption of macrolides. 4. Descriptive survey on antibiotic indication-prescription A survey was made in order to determine the prescriptions made, at a given moment in time, to treat infectious diseases, requested by doctors (family and paediatricians) belonging to the primary care health service. 5. Drawing up of recommendations on the appropriate use of ATB in Primary Health care Bibliographical review of the scientific literature in bibliographical databases: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, Best Evidence and INAHTA. Identification and selection of quality surveys that comply with the inclusion criteria previously established in the survey, making a synthesis and presentation in the form of tables of the evidence offered by the relevant surveys. 6. Economic assessment of the consumption of antibiotics The total amount consumed in antibiotics during the period studied was calculated. To make a real estimation of the increase in expenditure, current pesetas were adjusted to constant pesetas, using the annual CPIs and taking 1997 as the base year. Once the indication-prescription survey had been made, it was decided to estimate what could have been saved, should antibiotics not have been prescribed for viral infections for which there were no instructions to use these.
Details
Project Status: Completed
Year Published: 2000
English language abstract: An English language summary is available
Publication Type: Not Assigned
Country: Spain
MeSH Terms
  • Primary Health Care
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Bacterial Infections
Keywords
  • Anti-Infective Agents
Contact
Organisation Name: Basque Office for Health Technology Assessment
Contact Address: C/ Donostia – San Sebastián, 1 (Edificio Lakua II, 4ª planta) 01010 Vitoria - Gasteiz
Contact Name: Lorea Galnares-Cordero
Contact Email: lgalnares@bioef.org
Copyright:

Basque Office for Health Technology Assessment, Health Department Basque Government (OSTEBA)

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