[Analysis of tuberculosis isolation and prophylaxis techniques at a hospital level]

De la Torre Romero P, Garay Pelegrin V, Sarasqueta Eizaguirre C, Lobo Beristain J L, Dorronsoro Quintana S, Bermejo Navas M C
Record ID 32002000922
Original Title: Análisis de las técnicas de aislamiento y profilaxis de la tuberculosis a nivel hospitalario
Authors' objectives: Determine the scope of nosocomial tuberculosis at this moment in time, the most effective means to avoid this disease and the situation in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country.
Authors' results and conclusions: From a review of the literature on this subject, it can be deduced that nosocomial tuberculosis is a fact but that in countries such as Great Britain, with a tuberculosis rate of under 10 in every 100,000 inhabitants, this is not considered to be problem. The period reviewed does not contain any description of an outbreak of tuberculosis, nor any significant increase in tuberculin conversion in hospitals compliant with the CDC-94 regulation or even those for 1990. The measures contained in any prevention programme are structured hierarchically in accordance with their effectiveness. In first place, there are administrative measures such as operational protocols and isolation criteria, which are also the cheapest. Other administrative measures such as tuberculin controls and the treatment of the latent tuberculous infection of health care personnel, are less important. Structural and technical controls, would come in second place. These refer basically to negative pressure isolation rooms which must be kept in accordance with the appropriate technical conditions as otherwise, they might even contribute to spreading the tuberculous bacillus. Individual protection systems are considered to be the most cost-effective although their real contribution to the prevention of nosocomial tuberculosis is unknown. The bibliography reviewed includes, fundamentally, higher-cost equipment than those currently accepted as correct (N-95 or P1-P2 of European Regulations). At the time the survey was made, in the Basque Autonomous Community there was a very acceptable tuberculosis suspicion level and there were written protocols in most hospitals, but there were only isolation rooms in 4 of the 14 hospitals in the public health system, and most of these were insufficient in number and incorrectly used.
Authors' recommendations: Compliance with CDC-94 regulations ensures the prevention of nosocomial tuberculosis. Administrative measures are the most important within the efficiency hierarchy. A correct maintenance of isolation rooms is essential. N-95 respirators are cost-effective at least in places with a moderate or high prevalence of tuberculosis. In workers, tuberculin is essential from the point of view of monitoring risk levels, but the poor behaviour of the retest and subsequent treatment of the latent tuberculosis infetion reduce the efficiency of this measure. The role of the BCG among health workers may be worth considering. The test validation conditions of the European Regulations are different to those for the N-95 units stipulated in the American regulations and masks typified such as FPP1, FPP2 and FPP3 according to the European regulations, may be used in our environment, depending on the risk levels.
Authors' methods: Review of literature in the form of bibliographical searches in Medline from 1966 2000, Health Star (1975-1999), Cochrane Library and Best Evidence (1991-1999), websites referring to U.S. general practice guidelines (National Guidelines Clearinghouse, ATS, CDC, OSHA, NIOSH), Canadian guidelines and INAHTA. Expert opinion is included (CDC-94 regulations, Canadian and British guidelines). Survey among hospitals in the Basque Autonomous Community.
Project Status: Completed
Year Published: 2001
English language abstract: An English language summary is available
Publication Type: Rapid Review
Country: Spain
MeSH Terms
  • Tuberculosis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Transmission
  • Prevention and control
  • Health Personnel
Organisation Name: Basque Office for Health Technology Assessment
Contact Address: C/ Donostia – San Sebastián, 1 (Edificio Lakua II, 4ª planta) 01010 Vitoria - Gasteiz
Contact Name: Lorea Galnares-Cordero
Contact Email: lgalnares@bioef.eus
Copyright: <p>Basque Office for Health Technology Assessment, Health Department Basque Government (OSTEBA)</p>
This is a bibliographic record of a published health technology assessment from a member of INAHTA or other HTA producer. No evaluation of the quality of this assessment has been made for the HTA database.